The Joan Can't and Civ'ed diagram outlining the splintering of the socialist movement and the Dolvusist response. Red denotes OTL equivalents.

In the timeline for Imperium Offtopicum XV, Karl Marx was killed in a duel before penning The Communist Manifesto. Consequently, communism was developed by Mikhail Bakunin under more anarchist auspices.

Dolvusism intitially emerged as a reaction against Communism.


  • Bakuninism—The founding communist theory advocated class equality and was expressly anti-state. The Bakuninist Manifesto was written during Bakunin's imprisonment in St. Petersburg, and published in Switzerland when he was released. Equivalent to anarcho-communism.
    • Lafargueism—Named after Paul Lafargue, who argued that the society of Bakuninism could not be achieved without a "dictatorship of the proletariat" serving as a transitional intermediary. Equivalent to classical Marxism.
      • Montmorencism—Further development of Lafargue's ideas by the Marquis de Montmorecy as a revolutionary philosophy, whereby entities like the Paris Commune form a nation by federation, empowered by the legitimacy of democratic elections. This was the ideology held by the Occitan Society. Equivalent to Blanquism and communalism.
        • Occitanism—Described by Robert Can't as a cross of Luxemburgism and religious socialism. Revolution must be achieved with the legitimacy of universal democracy and representation for the universal benefit of the people. This was the ideology of the Louvain Society as well as the Louvain Commune.
          • Burnell Government—Variation on Occitanism proposed by Howard Burnell[who?] stipulating that all members of a Commune must serve for a fixed term. It holds that the right for a recall could cause a downfall of organisation and could destroy the legitimacy by majority.
        • Basque Socialism—Similar to Occitanism but it stipulates that an appointed council must lead the federation rather than elected representatives, as the purity of purpose must be maintained by the government, rather than the people.
      • Jugashvilism—Theory that emphasizes the necessity of world revolution to ensure that true Communism is achieved. Named after Ioseb Jugashvili, but ironically equivalent to Leninism.
        • Zhukovism—Descended from Jugashvilism but that forgoes world revolution in favour of constructing a single state as the Socialist vanguard, often through repressive means. Named after Soviet marshal Georgy Zhukov; equivalent to Stalinism.
      • Trotskyism—OTL Trotskyism: a World Revolution must happen, but the world is not ready yet.
    • Syndicalism—OTL Synidcalism: economic socialist theory that advocates the organization of industry into worker-owned confederations.
    • Makhnovism—Similar to OTL Makhnovism


"Can it not be argued that for the stateless society of Bakuninism to evolve, a mass uprising and dictatorship of the proletariat is necessary?" - Lafargue, On the Theories of Bakuninism, 1860

"Nothing would be more erroneous than to stamp the whole of the Bakuninist Manifesto simply as an historic document. On the contrary. The principles developed by it, the method to which it leads us, the characteristic it gives by a few strokes of the capitalist mode of production, are to-day more valid than ever. The whole actual development, as well as the whole theoretic investigation, of the time since the drawing-up of the Manifesto, are nothing but an unbroken line of confirmations of its fundamental conceptions. Never was the principle more universally accepted that the history of all hitherto existing (civilised) society is the history of state-endorsed class wars; and never has it appeared plainer that the great moving power of our times is the class war between bourgeoisie and proletariat and the war between the Government and its People." - Karl Kautsky, Essays on a Manifesto, 1880

"The fundamental principles of Bakuninism and Syndicalism are flawed, for no State would adopt these theories; indeed, for the State to survive, as little Bakuninist and Syndicalist interference is necessary. One must not look towards bland homogenous society for a model on which to run the State, but rather history must be endorsed and followed, lest the State lose its face." - Dolfuss, Politischer Situation Zentral- und Osteuropas, 1920

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